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What Is CBD?

CBD, or cannabidiol (pronounced ka·nuh·buh·dai·uhl), is the second most prevalent active ingredient or phytocannabinoid in cannabis (also referred to as hemp or marijuana). A phytocannabinoid is a naturally occurring molecule created by cannabis plants. Out of the over 480 compounds found in the cannabis plant, 144 are known phytocannabinoids including the main ones THC, CBD, CBN, CBC, CBG, and newly added THCV. Phytocannabinoids are used to treat a number of human and animal ailments. In 2008, the journal of Neuroendocrinology Letters published a proposal that some of the chronic health problems many people face may be due to an underlying endocannabinoid deficiency, including migraines and fibromyalgia. [1]

It is derived directly from the hemp plant, the same species as marijuana. Hemp has a very long history that traces back to Asia over 10,000 years ago.

Hemp was first introduced to North America in 1606. Since that time, American farmers have grown hemp as an industrial product used across multiple different products, such as paper, clothing, shoes, sails, food, lamp fuels, and ropes.  In fact, there are over 50,000 known uses of the hemp plant from paper to medication. In the 1700s, hemp became a crop that farmers grew as a staple crop. In the many decades that followed hemp went from being a staple crop to an illegal crop (not counting the times hemp was needed to make rope and other products needed to support war efforts).

The Agricultural Act of 2014 took a small step toward changing hemp policy in the US, followed by the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 (2018 Farm Bill). The later bill essentially removed hemp and hemp seeds from the Drug Enforcement Administration’s (DEA) schedule of Controlled Substances thus allowing the cultivation of hemp that can ultimately be used to create CBD products.

What Are Cannabinoids?

There are three types of cannabinoids – Endogenous cannabinoids (or endocannabinoids) are produced naturally in our bodies. Exogenous cannabinoids, also known as phytocannabinoids, have their origin in plants. The third, synthetic-based cannabinoids will not covered in this article. As of 2020 there are more than 144 known phytocannabinoids in the cannabis plant, including THC, CBD and CBG.

Phytocannabinoids are used to treat a number of human and animal ailments. In 2008, the journal of Neuroendocrinology Letters published a proposal that some of the chronic health problems many people face may be due to an underlying endocannabinoid deficiency, including migraines and fibromyalgia. It was revised in 2014.

“Subsequent research has confirmed that underlying endocannabinoid deficiencies indeed play a role in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and a growing list of other medical conditions. Clinical experience is bearing this out. Further research and especially, clinical trials will further demonstrate the usefulness of medical cannabis. As legal barriers fall and scientific bias fades this will become more apparent.” [1]

Recently, cannabinoids have been discovered in other plant species and some fungi [2].  

There Are 3 Types of CBD

There are three types of CBD, each containing different compounds and concentrations:

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Isolates: Only contains CBD, with no other cannabinoids or THC. Products that contain isolate CBD may not produce any notable effects; however, some may be blended with terpenes or other compounds.

Broad Spectrum: This contains most of the cannabis plant compounds. Broad-spectrum CBD products contain trace amounts of THC.

Full Spectrum: Includes all parts of the cannabis plant including other cannabinoids and terpenes, aromatics found in the plant’s essential oils. Full-spectrum products do contain THC but by law, it has to be less than <0.3% THC.

Potential Health Benefits of Hemp

Hemp contains chemicals that may affect the heart and might help reduce blood pressure. [3] Hemp also contains something called “terpenes”. Terpenes are the compounds that give plants their distinctive odors. Some studies suggest that terpenes may have health benefits. These benefits may include:

      • Neuroprotective or brain-protective benefits
      • Anti-inflammatory benefits
      • Anti-tumor properties [4]


(We’ll cov
er more about phytocannabinoids in Level 2.) 

CBD-Health-Benefits-Chart

Rollover image to magnify

Our Advice to Novices

Sea King offers a nice variety of different types of CBD. Decide on what type of CBD supplement you’d like to use according to your needs and lifestyle. Some people find that popping a CBD capsule is a quick and easy to get CBD into their body. Others may find the taste of gummies more to their liking. And still others may want the speed with which oil drops/tinctures get into the blood stream.

Each CBD product has a different bioavailability (the amount of time it takes to get into your bloodstream and take effect in your endocannabinoid system) and that is something to consider. It should be pointed out that bioavailability can be increased when fatty snacks are consumed such as dark chocolate, fatty fish, avocados, nuts, eggs and cheese. Supplementing with herbs can also increase absorption. 

CBD Types and Their Bioavailability

Gummies

Gummies are chewed and mostly dissolve in the mouth. Some of the CBD enters into your body sublingually and some of it gets digested. It is common to not feel any effects for 40 minutes to a few hours. The bioavailability of gummies is wide ranging with a conservative percentage at 4% and best percentage at about 20%. That means when you chew and swallow a 10mg CBD gummy, you can expect to get 2mg absorbed into your bloodstream at best.

Tinctures/Oils

Tinctures or Oils are administered sublingually (under the tongue) and absorb into mucous membranes before they enter the digestive tract. That means drops get into your ECS quicker than types of CBD that primarily go through your digestive system. Some like the taste of natural tincture or oils, but for those that don't, there are flavored tinctures and oils. The bioavailability of CBD oil can be as high as 56% when taken with a fat such as MCT oil. That means if you swallow a 10mg dose of CBD oil you may get 5.6mg of CBD into your bloodstream.

Gel Capsules, Soft Gels and Drinks

Soft gel capsules help protect CBD oil by sealing it, which prevents air and light from damaging the CBD oil. Gel caps have several advantages. 

They are easy to swallow, offer a precise dosage, have no taste, and have long-lasting effects. That said because they take a long time to digest, they are not fast-acting and can take 1 to 2 hours to take effect. Similar to other ingestible types of CBD, you can expect about a bioavailability range of between 6% - 15% or about 0.6mg to 1.5mg of a 10mg dose. 

Topicals

A cream, lotion, balm, or salve that's infused with CBD and applied directly to the skin is known as a CBD topical. These products may help relieve pain, skin disorders, arthritis, and neuropathy. Some CBD skincare products are used as beauty.

The bioavailability of topicals has been difficult to quantify, but there is no doubt that it enters into your pores and your dermis (inner layers of skin). You may start feeling the effects of a topical in about 60 minutes (and perhaps sooner for regular users of CBD), but it depends on several factors such as the quality of product, the strength of the formula, and the condition being treated. Different types include skin creams, roll-ons, bath bombs, and transdermal patches.

Please Note: Some studies have shown that an orally consumed CBD molecule stays in the body for 4.2 hours [5]. Also, one thing to keep in mind is that CBD is fat-soluble (as opposed to water-soluble), which makes it a challenge for the body to absorb. Researchers have concluded that CBD should be taken with high fat foods to maximize absorption [6]. 

Decide on Strength and Dose

Once you’ve determined what type of CBD you will be taking, you need to decide on how much CBD to take. There are a lot of variables to keep in mind when choosing the best strength for your condition.

  1. Your body weight;
  2. The condition you’re treating;
  3. Your individual body chemistry;
  4. The concentration of CBD in each drop, tincture, gummy, or capsule.

An article in Forbes magazine suggested using the following formula to determine how large of a dose you should consider.

0.25mg CBD multiplied by your body weight in pounds on a daily basis.

Therefore, a 120 pound person should take 30mg CBD daily (0.25 x 120 = 30), and a 200 pound person should take 50mg CBD daily (0.25 x 200 = 50). 

How do you determine strength? The size of the bottle will determine, how much CBD is in the formula, and the serving size will help. Consider this:

Let’s say you are looking at a 30mL bottle that has 3000mg of CBD in it, and the serving size is 1mL. Each serving will have 100mg of CBD in it. (3000mg ÷ 30mL = 100mg per 1mL serving) That same amount of CBD in a 60ml bottle would 50mg per serving. 

Once you know the serving size from the label the formula is simple: milligrams of CBD ÷ size of bottle in ml = mg per serving

How Much Should I Take?

As you can see from the list above, each person will be different. Consult your physician or alternative healthcare provider to see if they have a recommendation; however, if they don’t, perhaps it’s best to take a conservative approach and start with a small dosage and gradually increase it according to how it makes you feel and how well it is treating your condition. This could mean starting with a low dosage like 10 to 20 mg a day. (Again, you’ll want to consider the bioavailability of each product.) Then, after a week, increase this amount by 5 mg to 10mg per day. Continue increasing this amount until you feel that it’s effectively treating your symptoms.

For example, you might start off with 40 mg to treat severe pain. You can take 40 mg on days when you’re in a lot of pain. After a week, you may want to try increasing it to 45 mg, and after a second week, you may want to use 50 mg. At this point, you might feel that your pain is bearable. If so, this will be your regular dose. And remember to take into consideration the bioavailability of each type of CBD.

And obviously, if you start experiencing any adverse effects, reduce your dosage, change to a different product, or stop taking it altogether.

Be Patient: CBD is a Commitment

Using CBD is a long-term natural process vs. a short-term fix; it is a commitment. It takes time to determine a dose that works best for your needs. It is not unusual for CBD to take several weeks or even a few months before you’ll feel a difference. Some may feel the effects of CBD in a short amount of time, while others may feel they need a few months to feel the effects. But don’t give up. The long-term benefits of taking CBD will be well worth it. 

CBD is meant to simulate the naturally occurring cannabinoids that already exist in your body. Although your body already uses naturally occuring endocannabinoids to control important functions, (you can learn more about that here) it needs to adjust to the phytocannabinoids (CBD) you are taking. 

It’s Not Working; Now What?

If you feel as though you’re dialed into the right dosage but you’re still not seeing the results you expected, it may be time to change brands, try a new strength, or go with a different type of CBD. For instance, if you’ve been taking gummies for your insomnia and you’re not getting the results you want, try using a tincture instead. Tinctures work faster than gummies and have a higher bioavailability. (see the bioavailability information above) You could also try changing strengths, or switching to a different brand. (That’s why Sea King CBD offers different brands, different strengths, and different types.) 

We get it. Because of the experiences we’ve all had with over the counter (OTC) medications like aspirin, allergy medications, or antacids, it’s easy to see why people might expect the same sort of fast result from taking CBD products. But you need to consider the conditions being treated. An aspirin gets rid of a headache for most of people, but what if you’re a migraine sufferer? An aspirin may not help much. There are short-term solutions and long-term solutions. Different conditions require different solutions.

Still Not Working

OK, so you changed brands, changed strengths, and changed the type of CBD you are taking and you’re still not getting results, maybe CBD isn’t for you, BUT before you determine that, consider other factors that may be going on inside your body.

Are you getting enough good nutrition into your body? (CBD isn’t going to overcome deficiencies in your diet.) Are you getting enough exercise? Are you living in a healthy environment? CBD isn’t a cure-all. In fact, it isn’t a cure at all. Also, since each person is different, it isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach to health and wellness. But, it may be something that help enhance your health and wellness journey. The only way to find out if it will work for you is to give it a try…a patient try. And remember, Sea King CBD puts the needs of our customers first. That’s why we have a 100% Peace of Mind Guarantee.

Additional Information

We hope you now have a good basic understanding of CBD. For those who want to learn more you can explore our FAQ page, our Blog Home or click on the next level of CBD knowledge. Plus, you can always contact us with any questions (or comments) you have. We’ll respond quickly.

Peace of Mind Guarantee

Remember, when you make a purchase from Sea King CBD you are also getting our 100% Peace of Mind Guarantee. Plus, all of our CBD is tested by third party laboratories plus.

References

[1] Steele Clarke Smith, Mark S. Wagner (6/27/2014). “Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD) revisited:”. htpps://Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD) revisited: can this concept explain the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in migraine, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and other treatment-resistant conditions? – NeL.edu

[2] Thies Gülck and Birger Lindberg Møller (July 06,. 2020). “Phytocannabinoids: Origins and Biosynthesis”
https://www.cell.com/trends/plant-science/fulltext/S1360-1385(20)30187-4

[3] Aluko RE. Chapter 7 – Hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) proteins: composition, structure, enzymatic modification, and functional or bioactive properties. In: Sustainable Protein Sources. San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 2017:121-132.

[4] Cho KS, Lim YR, Lee K, Lee J, Lee JH, Lee IS. Terpenes from forests and human healthToxicol Res. 2017;33(2):97-106. doi:10.5487/TR.2017.33.2.097

[5] Xu, C., Chang, T., Du, Y., Yu, C., Tan, X., & Li, X. (2019). “Pharmacokinetics of oral and intravenous cannabidiol and its antidepressant-like effects in chronic mild stress mouse model.” Environ Toxicol Pharmacol, 70, 103202. doi:10.1016/j.etap.2019.103202 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31173966/

[6] Angela K. Birnbaum,Ashwin Karanam, Susan E. Marino, Christopher M. Barkley, Rory P. Remmel, Michaela Roslawski, Mary Gramling-Aden, Ilo E. Leppik (2019) “Food effect on pharmacokinetics of cannabidiol oral capsules in adult patients with refractory epilepsy. “https://doi.org/10.1111/epi.16093

[7] Millar SA, Stone NL, Yates AS, O’Sullivan SE. “A Systematic Review on the Pharmacokinetics of Cannabidiol in Humans”. Front Pharmacol. 2018 Nov 26;9:1365. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2018.01365. PMID: 30534073; PMCID: PMC6275223. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30534073/

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